2 – Judo Techniques

As referenced in Wikipedia – Excerpt

Judo waza – (techniques)

There are three basic categories of waza (技?, techniques) in Judo: nage-waza (投げ技?, throwing techniques), katame-waza (固技?, grappling techniques) and atemi-waza (当て身技?, striking techniques).[20] Judo is most known for nage-waza and katame-waza.[21]

Judo practitioners typically devote a portion of each practice session to ukemi (受け身?, break-falls), in order that nage-waza can be practiced without significant risk of injury. Several distinct types of ukemi exist, including ushiro ukemi (後ろ受身?, rear breakfalls); yoko ukemi (横受け身?, side breakfalls); mae ukemi (前受け身?, front breakfalls); and zenpo kaiten ukemi (前方回転受身?, rolling breakfalls)[22]

The person who performs a waza is known as tori (取り?, literally “taker”) and the person to whom it is performed is known as uke (受け?, literally “receiver”).[23]

Nage waza (throwing techniques)

Nage waza include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back. Each technique has three distinct stages:

  • Kuzushi (崩し?), the initial balance break;[24]
  • Tsukuri (作り?), the act of turning in and fitting into the throw;[25]
  • Kake (掛け?), the execution and completion of the throw.[25]

Nage waza are typically drilled by the use of uchi komi (内込?), repeated turning-in, taking the throw up to the point of kake.[26]

Traditionally, nage waza are further categorised into tachi-waza (立ち技?, standing techniques), throws that are performed with tori maintaining an upright position, and sutemi-waza (捨身技?, sacrifice techniques), throws in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke.[27]

Tachi-waza are further subdivided into te-waza (手技?, hand techniques), in which tori predominantly uses his arms to throw uke; koshi-waza (腰技?, hip techniques) throws that predominantly use a lifting motion from the hips; and ashi-waza (足技?, foot and leg techniques), throws in which tori predominantly utilises his legs.[27]

Harai goshi (払腰?, sweeping hip), a koshi-waza

Nage-waza (投げ技?) throwing techniques Tachi-waza (立ち技?) standing techniques Te-waza (手技?) hand techniques
Koshi-waza (腰技?) hip techniques
Ashi-waza (足技?) foot and leg techniques
Sutemi-waza (捨身技?) sacrifice techniques Ma-sutemi-waza (真捨身技?) rear sacrifice techniques
Yoko-sutemi-waza (橫捨身技?) side sacrifice techniques

Katame-waza (grappling techniques)

Katame-waza is further categorised into osaekomi-waza (押込技?, holding techniques), in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; shime-waza (絞技?, strangulation techniques), in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke; and kansetsu-waza (関節技?, joint techniques), in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints.[28]

A related concept is that of ne-waza (寝技?, prone techniques), in which waza are applied from a non-standing position.[29]

In competitive judo, Kansetsu-waza is currently limited to elbow joint manipulation.[30] Manipulation and locking of other joints can be found in various kata, such as Katame-no-kata and Kodokan goshin jutsu.[31]

Juji gatame (十字固?, cross lock), a kansetsu-waza

Katame-waza (固技?) grappling techniques Osaekomi-waza (押込技?) holding or pinning techniques
Shime-waza (絞技?) strangulation techniques
Kansetsu-waza (関節技?) Joint techniques (locks)

Atemi-waza (striking techniques)

Atemi-waza are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point. Atemi-waza are not permitted outside of kata.[32]

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