3 – Judo Pedagogy
As referenced in Wikipedia – Excerpt
Randori (free practice)
Judo pedagogy emphasizes randori (乱取り?, literally “taking chaos”, but meaning “free practice”). This term covers a variety of forms of practice, and the intensity at which it is carried out varies depending on intent and the level of expertise of the participants. At one extreme, is a compliant style of randori, known as Yakusoku geiko (約束稽古?, prearranged practice), in which neither participant offers resistance to their partner’s attempts to throw. A related concept is that of Sute geiko (捨稽古?, throw-away practice), in which an experienced judoka allows himself to be thrown by his less-experienced partner. At the opposite extreme from yakusoku geiko is the hard style of randori that seeks to emulate the style of Judo seen in competition. While hard randori is the cornerstone of Judo, over-emphasis of the competitive aspect is seen as undesirable by traditionalists if the intent of the randori is to “win” rather than to learn.
Randori is usually limited to either tachi waza (standing techniques) or ne waza (ground work) and, when one partner is thrown in tachi waza randori, practice is resumed with both partners on their feet.
Kata (形, kata?, Forms) are pre-arranged patterns of techniques and in judo, with the exception of the Seiryoku-Zen’yō Kokumin-Taiiku, they are all practised with a partner. Their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in randori, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo.
There are ten kata that are recognized by the Kodokan today:
- Randori-no-kata (乱取りの形?, Free practice forms), comprising two kata:
- Nage-no-kata (投の形?, Forms of throwing) Fifteen throws, practiced both left- and right-handed, three each from the five categories of nage waza: te waza, koshi waza, ashi waza, ma sutemi waza and yoko sutemi waza.
- Katame-no-kata (固の形?, Forms of grappling or holding). Fifteen techniques in three sets of five, illustrating the three categories of katame waza: osaekomi waza, shime waza and kansetsu waza.
- Kime-no-kata (極の形?, Forms of decisiveness). Twenty techniques, illustrating the principles of defence in a combat situation, performed from kneeling and standing positions. Attacks are made unarmed and armed with a dagger and a sword. This kata utilises atemi waza, striking techniques, that are forbidden in randori.
- Kōdōkan goshinjutsu (講道館護身術?, Kodokan skills of self-defence). The most recent recognised kata, comprising twenty-one techniques of defence against attack from an unarmed assailant and one armed with a knife, stick and pistol. This kata incorporates various jujutsu techniques such as wrist locks and atemi waza.
- Jū-no-kata (柔の形?, Forms of gentleness & flexibility). Fifteen techniques, arranged in three sets of five, demonstrating the principle of Jū and its correct use in offence and defence.
- Gō-no-kata (剛の形?, Forms of force). One of the oldest kata, comprising ten forms that illustrate the efficient use of force and resistance. Now rarely practiced.
- Itsutsu-no-kata (五の形?, The five forms). An advanced kata, illustrating the principle of seiryoku zen’yō and the movements of the universe.
- Koshiki-no-kata (古式の形?, Traditional forms). Derived from Kitō-ryū Jujutsu, this kata was originally intended to be performed wearing armour. Kano chose to preserve it as it embodied the principles of Judo.
- Seiryoku Zen’yō Kokumin Taiiku (精力善用国家体育?, Maximum-efficiency national physical education). A series of exercises designed to develop the physique for Judo.
- Joshi-goshinhō (女性護身法?, Methods of self-defence for women). An exercise completed in 1943, and of which the development was ordered by Jiro Nango, the second Kodokan president.
In addition, there are a number of commonly practiced kata that are not recognised by the Kodokan. Some of the more common kata include:
- Go-no-sen-no-kata (後の先の形?) A kata of counter techniques developed at Waseda University in Tokyo, popularised in the West by Mikonosuke Kawaishi.
- Nage-waza-ura-no-kata (投げ技裏の形?) Another kata of counter techniques, created by Kyuzo Mifune.
- Kaeshi-no-kata (返の形?, Forms of return) Yet another kata of counters, attributed to Yukio Tani